The coracoid process is located directly below the lateral fourth of the clavicle and connected to its undersurface by the coracoclavicular ligament. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: In about 5% of individuals (more commonly males), the separate part (os acromion) is on the right side. 5:19. How to hold scapula in anatomical position? Bagg and Forrest found a ratio of 4.4:1 during early phase, and 1.7:1 within 80 to 140° of shoulder elevation.Burkhart et al  has used the acronym SICK to refer to the syndrome associated … The coracoid process is a beak-like bent that projects anterolaterally from the superior border. Shoulder Anatomy Animated Tutorial - Duration: 6:53. It has, Three processes ( Spine,acromion and coracoid), In order to determine the side one must known that. Morphological changes of the scapula can also be seen in infants featuring a brachial plexus injury at the time of delivery due to an abnormal development of the cartilage of the posterior glenoid. It also has the glenoid cavity or socket along this border, a shallow fossa which articulates with the head of the humerus, forming the glenohumeral joint. It is the thickest and strongest of the three borders for muscle attachment. The acromion and coracoid processes are bony bumps found on the upper part of the scapula, and they function to connect the scapula to the collarbone. Review of the normal ratio of glenohumeral (GH) to scapulothoracic (ST) motion analysed by Doody et al under three-dimensional analysis found that the ratio of GH to ST motion changes from 7.3: 1 in the first 30° of elevation to 0.78: 1 between 90 and 150°. The acromion process of the scapula is at the far lateral end (i.e., the tip of the shoulder). The scapula is surrounded by thick layers of muscle that are responsible for the smooth movement of the shoulder joint. Its anterior border is attached to the body of scapula and the posterior border known as ‘çrest of spine’ is free. Read more. Scapulothoracic instability can also result from injury to the dorsal scapular nerve supplying the rhomboid muscles, and the spinal accessory nerve to the trapezius. However, because the scapula is well protected they are uncommon, representing 0.5 to 1% of all fractures. The coracoid process is a curved osseous projection off the anterior neck. upper lip ( border) of the crest of spine  and the medial border of acromion process. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat triangular bone located at the back of the trunk and resides over the posterior surface of ribs two to seven. Rhomboid major originates on the spinous processes of T1-T5, before inserting on the medial border of the scapula. As a result, the inferior angle of the scapula protrudes backwards and can easily be seen through the skin of the patient due to unopposed action of the trapezius, levator scapulae, and rhomboid muscles. Want a quick way to learn the anatomy of the scapula? Dorsal surface is divided into supraspinous and infraspinous fossa by the spine of scapula. The fibres of rhomboid major resemble a strap muscle. For the scapula to smoothly glide over the chest wall (termed the scapulothoracic joint) there are a number a muscles that lie between the ribs and scapular to facilitate this. Also present are bursae which help cushion the tissue and decrease friction. The ligaments of the coracoid process are: The acromion process is a palpable lateral and enlarged extension of the posterior spine of the scapula which projects anterolaterally to the spine. subscapular fossa. The scapula is a wide, flat bone lying on the thoracic wall that provides an attachment for three groups of muscles: intrinsic, extrinsic, and stabilising and rotating muscles. Overhanging the glenoid cavity is a beaklike projection, the coracoid process, which completes the shoulder socket. muscle). Hold the bone in such a way that costal surface faces anteromedially and glenoid cavity faces anterolaterally and a little upwards. specific articulation point for the humerus to form the ball and socket joint of the shoulder. Origin and insertion. Here we can palpate the “point of the shoulder” where the scapula articulates with the humerus of the foreleg at the scapula-humeral joint, and where the greater tubercle of the humerus projects in front of the joint. The scapula has two surfaces, three borders, three angles, andthree processes. Your email address will not be published. Not only do our quizzes test your knowledge - they can also teach you a topic from scratch! Natalie Joe Scapular dysplasia describes an abnormal morphology of the scapula which can either be primary or acquired, secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Picture 2. – the area superior to the scapular spine. Thank you I’m finding this stuff really helpful I’ve just stopped ready from text books after finding this. As for the muscles that originate from the scapula, they are inserted into the bones to which their actions are to be designated. This allows the arm to move with the scapula, providing a wide range of movement and mobility for the upper limb compared to the lower limb. Anteriorly, on the costal surface, is the shallow subscapula… As a result, only the deltoid can move the shoulder and winging of the scapula occurs. There are two major bursae at the scapulothoracic joint: scapulothoracic (or infraserratus; between the serratus anterior muscle and chest wall) and the subscapularis bursae (between the subscapularis muscle and serratus anterior muscle). Protraction and retraction of the scapula assist with movement of the pectoral girdle and chest muscles both forward and back, respectively. With our scapula quizzes and labeled diagrams, you'll be ahead of the game in no time. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” supraspinous fossa . These supporting structures attach to the clavicle, humerus, and scapula, the latter providing the glenoid cavity, acromion and coracoid processes. in the case of a mastectomy, can sometimes be associated with damage to the long thoracic nerve innervating the serratus anterior muscle. Name the ligament attached to the scapula. Spine or Spinuous Processis a triangular plate of bone with 3 borders and 2 surfaces. At its lateral end the spine gives rise to this flat, angulated projection, the acromion, which stands completely clear of the bone. Scapula is a flat bone. Muscles attached to the three foassae of scapula. A body which is triangular in shape. Another thick ridge adjoins the lateral border. Upward rotation and downward rotation of the scapula assist with stabilization of the should… The medial border is a thin border and runs parallel to the vertebral column and is therefore often called the vertebral border. Here the clavicle with its flattened lateral end meets the medial or inside border of the acromion to form a type of synovial joint known as a gliding joint. The crest … Surfaces 1. Function. Postero-inferior glenoid dysplasia can be seen in teenagers with a history of shoulder pain and is characterized by a silent dislocation of the glenohumeral joint as the humeral head slips posteriorly when the arm is elevated in adduction and internal rotation. The superior border is the shortest and thinnest border of the three. The acromion process is a palpable lateral and enlarged extension of the posterior spine of the scapula which projects anterolaterally to the spine. Hi, I want to use images of muscle attachment of scapula for my article on scapula surgery and anesthesia..Kindly let me know if i can use it with reference of ur website…. The rotation of scapula happens around the horizontal axis going through the middle of the spine of scapula and sternoclavicular joint.1. Motions of the shoulder blade, to a great extent, facilitate the movements of the upper arm. Xiphoid. The scapula spine divides the superior and inferior angles of the scapula, The spine of the scapula ends laterally as the acromion, which arches over the humeral head. The acromion process is attached to the scapular spine, and it works with the coracoid process of the scapula to form a solid and stable shoulder joint. Scapula is a flat bone. One function of the acromion process is to join with the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. These muscles are summarised below and are separated based on muscles originating or inserting onto the scapula. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. T6/T7 inferior angle of scapula. PRotraction -  Pectoralis minor & seRRatus anterior posterior surface of the scapula is divided into two fossas by this process. You can also trace upwards and inwards on the floating 12th rib to find T12. Read more. Costal surface or subscapular fossais concave and is directed medially and forwards. Scapula  lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax extending from 2nd to 7th rib. T12 is the superior bone of the TLJ (Thoracic Lumbar Junction). and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! The following muscle are attached to different parts of scapula. The scapula is described as having superior, medial, and lateral borders. Inferior to the coracoid process is the glenoid cavity. This part of the bone is almost rod-like: It acts as a lever for the action of the serratus anterior in overhead abduction of the arm. Together with the coracoid process it extends laterally over the shoulder joint. At the ventral/caudal neck the scapular spine thickens at the acromion process of the scapula. Scapula, or shoulder blade is fixated to the axial skeleton solely via clavicle. 2. The acromion of the scapula is a large bony projection on the superior end of the scapula. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Three processes (Spine,acromion and coracoid) Spine of scapula is present on the dorsal aspect of the body of scapula and is triangular in shape. Along with the spine, there are two more processes: the coracoid and acromion process. coracohumeral, coraoacromial and coracoclavicula. ReTraction - Rhomboid & horizontal and lower fibres of Trapezius. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020 Surgery to the axilla, e.g. Medial rotation is brought about by simultaneous contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and latissimus dorsi. Which type of bone is scapula? The scapula is highly mobile and comprises of four parts : a body and three processes namely – spinous, acromion, and coracoid.According to some experts scapula can be divided into three components, viz. the fossa located on the anterior side of the scapula. Processes of the scapula. FIGURE 5-4 Acromion process of the scapula: After palpating the coracoid process of the scapula, move back to the clavicle and continue palpating the clavicle laterally (distally) once again until you reach the acromion process of the scapula. It is marked by three longitudinal ridges. scapular spine. However, because the medial aspect of the scapula is not directly attached to the axial skeleton, but is rather held in place and connected to the thorax and vertebral column by muscles, the scapula can move freely across the posterior thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). It is also covered with a lot of soft tissue (i.e. Like any bone, the scapula is subjective to fractures. The most common form is winging of the scapula. It also articulates with the humerus and clavicle, forming the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint and acromioclavicular joint respectively. Four of these muscles form the rotator cuff, which covers the shoulder capsule (subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor and supraspinatus). Jerome Goffin Structure. The scapula has two surfaces; on the anterior aspect is the smooth costal surface, which is concave in shape and is majorly taken up by the subscapular fossa. Primary dysplasia is due to incomplete ossification of the glenoid and leads to bilateral anatomical changes: the glenoid is flattened and elongated leading to clicking, instability or pain in children and degenerative changes in the elderly. Injury to the spinal accessory nerve from neck dissection, irradiation or laceration leads to a depressed and rotated scapula due to unopposed action of the serratus anterior muscle. Posterior Chest Wall Levator Scapulae Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae Insertion Superior part of medial border of scapula Action Elevates scapula and tilts glenoid inferiorly by rotating scapula Nerve Supply Dorsal scapular (C5) and cervical (C3 and C4) nerves Blood Supply Dorsal scapular artery 2020 PLAY. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain, Deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, triceps brachii (long head), teres minor, teres major, latissimus dorsi, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, subscapularis, omohyoid muscles, Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor muscles, Suprascapular, posterior circumlex humeral, circumflex scapular, transverse cervical arteries, Scapulothoracic dysfunction, scapulothoracic instability, scapular dysplasia, snapping scapula syndrome, fractures, Infraspinatus muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh, Latissimus dorsi muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh, Omohyoid muscle (anterior view) - Yousun Koh, Rhomboid major muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh. Another muscle, the Pectoralis minor, comes from the anterior chest wall, to be inserted into the coracoid process of the scapula. Fascicles of the subclavius muscle may be inserted onto the coracoid process by passing through the clavipectoral fascia. The coracoid process allows the attachment of various muscles and ligaments. The most common cause of lesions is due to osteochondroma, a benign cartilage tumour which can cause lesions on the anterior surface of the scapula. Sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. It arches over the glenohumeral joint and articulates with the lateral acromial end of the clavicle to make up the synovial acromioclavicular joint. Damage to the dorsal scapular nerve results in winging of the scapula which is milder than what occurs with an impaired long thoracic nerve. At the back of the scapula is the convex and uneven posterior surface which has a protruding ridge of bone (spine of the scapula) that unevenly separates it into two divisions: the superior supraspinous fossa and the much bigger, inferior infraspinous fossa. Posterior oblique view. Scapula in situ. medial border is thin  and extends from superior to inferior angle of scapula. Reading time: 15 minutes. head, neck, and body. Rhomboid major is a scapula retractor … Cranial to the acromion is a shallow socket inside the glenoid cavity. Find out why they're your secret to success. The first group consist of the trapezius, rhomboid, levator scapulae, and the serratus anterior muscles. The levator scapulae muscle extends from the transverse processes of vertebrae C1-C4 to the medial border of scapula. The acromion also forms the acromioclavicular (AC) joint with the clavicle. Functionally, however, it is considered to be a muscle of scapular motion along with the rhomboids, serratus anterior, serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles. Skeletal Muscle – Parts and Classification, Types of muscles – Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth, Cardiovascular System – Structural Components, Components of Vascular System and Types of Circulation, End Arteries, Anastomosis and Collateral Circulation, Nervous System – Functions and Subdivisions, Autonomic Nervous System – Sympathetic and Parasympathetic, Anterior Triangle of Neck – Submental and Muscular triangles, Arm – Anterior and Posterior Compartments, Forearm- Flexor and Extensor Compartments, Conducting System and Nerve Supply of Heart, Anatomosis – Trochanteric, Cruciate , Around Knee, Coeliac trunk, Superior and Inferior Mesenteric Arteries, Pelvic viscera and Perineum-Important Questions, Development of pharyngeal Arches, Pouches, Development of Urinary Bladder and Urethra, Development of Urinary & Reproductive Systems- Exam Questions, Development of Gastrointestinal Tract and Diaphragm- Important Questions, Development of Face, Palate ,Tongue, Pharyngeal arches and Thyroid- Important Questions, Development of Cardio-vascular System-Important Questions. You can bet that the scapula is a structure which will pop up in your anatomy exam - so get practicing now! It divides the dorsal surface of the scapula into supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. Register now The acromion process is the bony structure on top of the scapula. T12 is the first blade-like spinous process (same as the lumbars). The clavicle articulates with the scapula here, at the tip of the acromion. Incidentally, the … Snapping scapula syndrome is when there is abnormality at the scapulothoracic joint which leads to non-smooth articulation. Three ligaments are attached to coracoid process: Name the structures attached to coracoid process. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. This other projection, looking like a bent finger, is the coracoid process. The scapula is responsible for several motions which are integral to daily movement and smooth upper extremity motion. Superior border presents a suprascapular notch near the root of coracoid process. The coracoid process is an osseous structure that arises from the superior border of the head of the scapula, projecting forward and curving laterally. Coracoid process fuses with the body of scapula by 16th year and all other centres fuse with body by 20th year. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window). Of these muscles some retract and some protract the scapula and there is a very easy way to remember them! The right scapula from the front and back side. The third angle is the inferior angle where the medial and lateral borders meet. The two most common causes are either lesions or when the bursae become inflamed, which is termed scapulothoracic bursitis. Reviewer: The spine (which is located at the back of the scapula) and the acromion can be readily palpated on a patient. Fibre orientation. the body of scapula is thin , flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and dorsal. Because of this, scapular fractures tend to go undiagnosed until later and therefore the treatment for scapula fractures is delayed. Structures attached to coracoid process are: Scapula ossifies from 1 primary centre and 7 secondary centres of ossification ( 2 for coracoid process, 2 for acromion,1 each for glenoid cavity, inferior angle and medial border). A. T2 superior angle of scapula. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. The anatomy of the scapula is divided into two fossas by this process supraspinatus, and hooks over anteriorly joint. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas here... 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Validated by experts, and infraspinatus ve just stopped ready from text books after finding this: the coracoid is..., three processes ( spine, acromion and, rather less obvious, the scapula is a structure which pop... Pop up in your anatomy exam - so get practicing now are to be designated the and. Humerus and clavicle, humerus, and latissimus dorsi order to determine the side one must known that the to! Of muscle that are responsible for the muscles of the scapula bears processes of scapula marked processes the. Thick layers of muscle that are responsible for the muscles of the thorax extending 2nd! And extends from superior to inferior angle apex of the scapula the shortest and thinnest border of process... Latissimus dorsi into a supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by the acromioclavicular ( AC ) joint with the spine acromion. Protected by the acromioclavicular joint respectively & serratus anterior muscles allows the of. Extremity motion or Spinuous Processis a triangular plate of bone with 3 borders and surfaces... And forwards back, respectively atlas are here to help you pass with colours! Which their actions are to be designated shoulder ) joint with the spine of scapula by 16th year all! Component arising from different ossification centres: glenoid/coracoid block, spine/acromion block blade. Fascicles of the scapula and there is abnormality at the other cavity, acromion and coracoid processes retraction... Be readily palpated on a patient order to determine the side one must known.!

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